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گذشته استمراری

نوشته شده توسط:منوچهر آذرنیا
پنجشنبه 11 آذر 1389-02:30 ب.ظ

 

Grammar to go! Lesson Link
Unit 7: Past continuous
Oxford Living Grammar explains how grammar works and when to use it. The
exercises use real-life situations to practise grammar in context. This lesson
consolidates your students’ knowledge of the past continuous in the context of storytelling.
Lesson length: 60-75mins
Aim:   1.  to review the use of the past continuous in storytelling for setting the scene and describing
 background situations and activities, in contrast to the past simple for telling the main events
2.   to give students supported practice in writing a story with the past continuous and past simple.
Preparation:
n    Prepare an enlarged copy of the man with a cat from Activity worksheet: Past continuous to use as
 a visual aid.
n    You will need a copy of the following for each student:
Activity worksheet: Past continuous (from Oxford Living Grammar Elementary Unit 7) n    You will need a copy of the following for each pair of students:
 Activity worksheet: Roll-the-dice storytelling
A dice
n    If you want to do the Extra activity, prepare the nine scenario cards.

1. Grammar Review 1: Past continuous for describing the background to a story
 before the main events begin
n  Hand out Activity worksheet: Past continuous and direct the students to the picture of the man with
 the cat. (Alternatively, project the image on an OHP.) Let the class look at the picture for ten seconds,
 then tell them to turn over their worksheets (or switch off the OHP). Ask the class what they can
 remember about the weather, the man and the cat. Elicit these past continuous sentences and write
 them on the board:
It was raining.   The man was wearing a hat.   He was holding a cat. The man and the cat were sitting under a tree.
The man was smiling. The cat wasn’t smiling.

n    Ask ‘Do these sentences describe events in a story or the background information?’ (background
 information, not events) Ask ‘Why is it helpful to give background information at the beginning of a
 story?’ Write these answers on the board:
4  It helps the listener create a picture in their mind before the main events of the story. 4  It creates suspense / drama.

n    Before doing the review activity, briefly highlight the form of the past continuous (was / were  +
verb + ing). Use the sentences on the board to elicit the question and negative forms of the past continuous (Was it raining? It wasn’t raining, etc.)

 

 

© Oxford University Press 2010 PHoTocoPIable page 1
 

 

Grammar to go!   Lesson Link


2. REVIEW ACTIVITY: Telling a story
n    Give the students about five minutes to complete the conversation in exercise 1 on the worksheet
with past continuous question and negative forms. Let the students check their answers in pairs before going through the correct answers with the whole class.
Answers
1 Were you walking home? 2 I wasn’t going home. 3 What was he doing? 4 Was he jogging?
5 he wasn’t running. 6 was he walking? 7 he wasn’t walking. 8 Was he sleeping? 9 He wasn’t
sleeping. 10 What was he wearing?

n    Put the students in pairs to practise reading the conversation together.

3. GRAMMAR REVIEW 2: Past simple for the main events in stories
n    Draw the students’ attention to the final three lines of the conversation about the man and the cat. Ask
 two students to read it aloud. Ask ‘Was the ending happy, sad, mysterious …?’ (Answer: happy, but
 mysterious) Then ask, ‘What tense do the speakers use at the end of the conversation? (Past simple)
 ‘Why?’ (Because they are talking about events, not the background situation.)
n    Point out that the story in exercise 1 followed this pattern:

description of situation event / ending
(lots of past continuous) (past simple)

4. REVIEW ACTIVITY
n    Point out that many stories follow this pattern:
situation → event → situation → event → situation → event / ending
(continuous) (simple) (continuous) (simple) (continuous) (simple)
n    Write this on the board:
 My morning
I got up at 7 a.m. The sun shone.   The birds sang.   I got up and went downstairs.
Tell the students that two of the tenses are wrong. Which ones? Why? Write the answers on the board:
The sun shone. 8  The sun was shining. 4 = The weather is background information about
the situation, not a main event, so we should use the past continuous.
The birds sang. 8 The birds were singing. 4 = again, the birds’ song is background
information, not a main event.
n   Give the students about five minutes to do exercise 2 on the worksheet. Let the students compare
 their answers in pairs, then go through the correct answers with the whole class. Use the words
 ‘situation’ and ‘event’ to reinforce the concept when talking about the correct answers and the tenses.
Answers
1 ate was eating   2 ran was running   3 walked was walking   4 sat was sitting 5 drove was driving
6 rained was raining

 

© Oxford University Press 2010 PHoTocoPIable page 2
 

 

Grammar to go!   Lesson Link


5. CONTEXTUALIZED ACTIVITY: ROLL-THE-DICE STORYTELLING
Task Instructions:
Tell the students they are going to do their own storytelling now, with the help of a dice. Remind the
students about using the past continuous to help build a picture in the reader’s mind, and to create drama.
A. Divide the students into pairs and give each pair a copy of Activity worksheet: Roll-the-dice storytelling and a dice.
B. Tell the pairs to look at the seven sections of the worksheet and roll the dice seven times. Each time they must circle the relevant piece of information on the worksheet. This information will form the
background situation and the events in their story.

C. Give the pairs about five minutes to talk together and plan their stories. For some of the items on the
worksheet they will need to answer ‘What’, ‘Why’ or ‘Who’ questions. Go round the class as the students talk to give encouragement and support where needed.

D. Give the pairs ten to fifteen minutes to write their stories out. Again, go round the class as the students work to correct and give help where needed.

E. When everyone has finished, invite individual students to read their stories aloud to the class, or post
them on the wall and get everyone up and reading. Students can say which story they liked the most, and
why.
6. EXTRA ACTIVITIES
Mime game: When I got on the train yesterday, someone was …
Distribute the cards below. Allow students time to check unknown words in their dictionary. Write this ‘event’ on the board:

I got on the train.

Then change the sentence to:

When I got on the train, someone …

Students take turns to mime the background activity on their card while the rest of the class guesses what the activity was. Do an example with the whole class first.

… someone was listening to … someone was sleeping. .… someone was talking on their
music on an MP3 player. phone.

… someone was reading the … someone was eating a .… someone was holding a cat.
newspaper. burger.

… someone was arguing with … someone was drinking a .… someone was putting on
the inspector. hot cup of coffee. make-up.
 

 

 

 


© Oxford University Press 2010 PHoTocoPIable
 

 

 

 


page 3
 

 

Grammar to go!   Lesson Link


HOMEWORK/EXPANSION
Students look again at the morning / afternoon / evening stories in exercise 2 on Activity worksheet: Past continuous. They then write their own mini stories about an event that happened to them one morning, afternoon or evening.
Students exchange and read each other’s stories. They ask each other questions with past simple and past
continuous to find out more information e.g. How did you feel? What was the weather like? Where were
you going?

EXTRA HELP
Do your students need more help with the past continuous?: Direct them to unit 7 of Oxford Living Grammar Elementary.
Do your students need more help with the past simple?: Direct them to unit 6 of Oxford Living Grammar Elementary.
Have you got the right books to develop and extend vocabulary?: Use units from Oxford Word Skills for ‘I can…’ confidence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


© Oxford University Press 2010 PHoTocoPIable page 4
 


Grammar to go! Lesson Link

Activity worksheet: Past continuous


1. Telling a story
Bill and Maria are in Bill’s garden. Use the words in brackets to make past continuous
question forms for Maria, and past continuous negative forms for Bill.
BILL I saw a man in the woods last night.
MARIA     What were you doing in the woods? 0 (What/you/do/in the
woods?) 1 (you/walk/home?)
BILL No, 2 (I/not/go/home.) It was almost
midnight. It was raining, and I was looking for Ben, my cat. Then I saw a man.
MARIA  Really? 3 (What/he/do?)
4 (he/jog?)
BILL No, 5 (he/not/run.)
MARIA  Well, 6 (he/walk?) Did he have a dog with him?
BILL No, he didn’t have a dog, and 7 (he/not/
walk.) He was sitting under a tree.
MARIA  Really? 8 (he/sleep?)
BILL No, he was watching me. His eyes were open. 9
(He/not/sleep.)
MARIA  Was he an old man or a young man? 10
(What/he/wear?)
BILL He was young. He was wearing a very big black hat and he was holding Ben!
MARIA  No! What did you do?
BILL I ran home and phoned the police. But he wasn’t there when they arrived. And
my cat came home about an hour later.

2.  Breakfast, a hot afternoon and a small accident
Jack, Olivia and Marcia are describing what they did yesterday. In each text, you need to change two verbs from the past simple to the past continuous. Cross out the verbs, and rewrite them at the end.
Jack: morning           I got up at 7 a.m. as usual. The sun shone. My dad was having a
shower. I got dressed and went downstairs to have some breakfast. When I ate, the
phone rang. It was Benjamin on his mobile. He ran along Green Street. He said, ‘I’ll be at your house in ten minutes.’ I normally go to school with Benjamin. While I was waiting for him, my sister came downstairs and put the radio on.
was shining 2
0 1
Olivia: afternoon I was working hard all morning, so I went for a walk after lunch. I
walked through the park when I met Megan. She sat on the grass. We went to the library together, but it was very busy. Some students were reading, and others were working on the computers. It was very hot, too, so we didn’t stay.
3 4
Marcia: evening           I drove home from work at about 6.30 p.m., when I saw a small
accident on the other side of the road. A car stopped quickly and another car hit it. It
rained hard at the time. When I got home at about 7 p.m., my husband Oliver was
making dinner in the kitchen. I told him about the accident. We had dinner and watched TV until bedtime.
5 6

 

© Oxford University Press 2010 PHoTocoPIable page 5
 


Grammar to go! Lesson Link

Activity worksheet: Roll-the-dice storytelling

1 Where were you going? 2 How were you travelling?
to a friend’s house I was walking.
home I was driving a …(what?)
to a party I riding a …(what?)
to school I was on the train.
to the beach I was on the bus.
to a wedding I was flying.

3   How were you feeling?
sad (why?)
worried (why?)
excited (why?)
sick (why?)
happy (why?)
relaxed (why?)
4   What was the weather like? 5   What were you wearing?
It was raining. jeans and a T-shirt
It was snowing. very old clothes - what?
The wind was blowing. very smart clothes - what?
The sun was shining. pyjamas
The weather was getting colder. a magic cloak
The weather was getting warmer. sports clothes - what?


SUDDENLY…
6   What happened?
You met someone - who?
You found something - what?
Something good happened - what?
Something bad happened - what?

7   How did the story end?
a sad ending - what happened?
a happy ending - what happened?

 

© Oxford University Press 2010 PHoTocoPIable page 6

 



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